Most of the oldest known settlements of Istanbul are currently under the waters of the Marmara Sea. Because the glacial lifestyle that emerged in the Mesolithic age, the glaciers began to melt with the end of this age. The Marmara Sea and the Black Sea, which were lakes in the ice age, started to expand with the overflow of these waters and formed the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles.
The oldest known settlement in Istanbul is the Yarım Burgaz cave. YarımBurgaz Cave is located in the North of Küçükçekmece Lake. Human and animal fossils that lived 400 thousand years ago and the most primitive stone tools were found in the cave. Half Burgaz Cave is also a proof that human migration from Africa to Europe was carried out by passing over Anatolia.
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